Jaundice

Jaundice is symptom of liver disease, which manifest as yellowish discoloration of urine and eyes,
Diagnosis is confirmed by performing liver function test (blood test)

Causes of jaundice are 

Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia

  • Hemolysis
  • Gilbert syndrome 

Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia– is due to the liver diseases which can either be liver inflammation or  obstruction in biliary system of the liver

Liver inflammation

  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Hepatitis E
  • Alcoholic hepatitis
  • Wilson Disease (Excessive copper in liver)
  • Hemochromatosis (Excessive iron in liver)
  • Autoimmune hepatitis

Obstruction in biliary system of liver

  • Stone in common bile duct
  • Tumor of gall bladder, pancreas, and CBD causing CBD obstruction
  • Worm in CBD
  • Enlarged lymph nodes compressing CBD

Workup

Following tests are done to know the cause of jaundice

  • LFT
  • Viral markers
  • USG Abdomen
  • CECT Abdomen and MRCP

Treatment

  • Treatment of jaundice depends upon the cause of jaundice and includes
  • Antiviral medication
  • Stopping alcohol
  • Steroids for autoimmune hepatitis
  • Copper and iron chelation for wilson disease and hemochromatosis respectively
  • ERCP to remove the CBD stone or stent placement to bypass biliary obstruction due to tumor

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