Cirrhosis is a liver disease that includes liver hardening and fibrosis.


  • Excessive alcohol intake
  • Hepatitis B, C
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (as seen in obesity).
  • Wilson disease
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Autoimmune hepatitis


Many patients can remain asymptomatic and are diagnosed based on blood tests. Symptoms include:

  • Weakness and tiredness
  • Vomiting with blood
  • Fluid in the abdomen (ascites)
  • Feet swelling (pedal edema)
  • Black stool
  • Altered behavior
  • Unconsciousness
  • Decreased urine output


Cirrhosis is confirmed based on these investigations:

  • Ultrasonography
  • Fibroscan
  • LFT
  • Liver Biopsy
  • CT scan
  • MRI


  • Management of complications
  • The nutritional diet rich in protein and calories
  • Diuretics and salt restriction to minimize fluid accumulation
  • Management of variceal bleeding by beta-blockers, and banding
  • Management of hepatic encephalopathy by L-ornithine L-Aspartate and laxatives
  • Liver transplant for management of advanced liver disease

Reversal of disease by etiology-oriented therapy

  • Stop alcohol consumption
  • Antiviral drugs in case of hepatitis B and C
  • Autoimmune Hepatitis by steroid therapy
  • Copper chelation in case of Wilson disease
  • Iron chelation for Hemochromatosis
Emergency Cases

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