Cirrhosis is the disease of liver characterized by hardening and fibrosis of liver.

Causes of cirrhosis are

  • Excessive alcohol intake
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (Which occurs mostly in overweight individuals).
  • Wilson disease
  • Autoimmune hepatitis
  • Hemochromatosis.

Symptoms of cirrhosis are

  • Individuals with cirrhosis may be totally asymptomatic, and diagnosed on imaging on blood tests
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Fluid in abdomen (ascites) and swelling of feet (pedal edema)
  • Vomiting of blood
  • Black stool
  • Altered behavior or unconsciousness
  • Decreased urine output


Cirrhosis is suspected in the patients with above mentioned symptoms, and is confirmed by following investigations

  • LFT
  • Ultrasonography
  • Fibroscan
  • Liver Biopsy
  • CT scan and MRI

Treatment of cirrhosis includes Management of complications

  • Diet rich in calories and protein for the nutritional build up
  • Diuretics and salt restriction for fluid overload
  • Beta blockers, Endoscopy and banding for variceal bleed
  • Laxatives and L-ornithine L-Aspartate in patients with hepatic encephalopathy
  • Liver transplant may be only options in patients with advanced liver disease

Reversal of disease with the treatment of underlying etiology

  • Stopping alcohol
  • Antiviral for hepatitis B and C
  • Steroids for autoimmune Hepatitis
  • Copper chelation for wilson disease
  • Iron chelation for Hemochromatosis
Emergency Cases

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