Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by ulcerations in small or large intestine. Two common inflammatory bowel diseases are Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

Ulcerative colitis
Ulcerative colitis is disease characterized by ulcerations in large intestine
 

Common symptoms are
  • Diarrhoea
  • Blood in stool
  • Urgency (patient has to rush to toilet)
  • Incontinence (passage of stool in cloths)
  • Pain abdomen
  • Weight loss

Diagnosis

  • Diagnosis is confirmed by colonoscopy and biopsy
Treatment
  • Treatment depends upon severity of disease
  • Mild disease is treated by Mesalamines
  • Moderated and severe disease is treated by Steroids, antimetabolites, and Infliximab
  • Severe cases may require surgery
Crohn’s disease
Crohn’s disease is characterized by ulceration in small and large bowel.
Symptoms of Crohn’s disease are
  • Pain in umbilical region
  • Diarrhea
  • Blood in stool
  • Vomiting and upper abdominal pain
  • Weight loss
  • Fever
  • Abdominal lump

Diagnosis
Following tests are required for the diagnosis and evaluation of extent of the disease

  • Colonoscopy and biopsy
  • CT enterography
  • Barium study
  • Double balloon enteroscopy
  • Capsule endoscopy 
     
Tratement
Treatment depends upon the severity and extent of disease
  • Mild disease is treated by mesalamine
  • Moderate disease is treated by oral steroids and antimetabolites
  • Severe disease activity may require steroids, antimetabolites and Infliximab
  • Surgery is reserved for severe but localized disease, and stricturing disease

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